■ Article : A VENG THEI NAILO UKCIP GALKAP MANGTE HONG NUSIAT BUAINA ZUNGPITE -7 minutes read

Opinion

Published on: 2021-04-03 10:47:51

A beisa March kha 31 ni-in CRPH in 2008 Thukhunpi kiphiat siang ta hi, ci-in tangko uh a, gampi thak vai ding thusuah zong bawl uh hi. Thusuah khenpi nihna ah Federal tawh kisai thu gelh uh hi. Hih federal thu mah bulphuhin kinialna tampi hong piang pah hi. YUOPS (Yangon University Open Political Society) kihelin Federal Law Academy leh BBP Resistance cihte in amau online page te ah hih federal vai tangkona pen lem lian kei veh aw, ci-in gen tek uh hi. Tubang hun laitakin amaute man hi, khial hi, cihte koih phot ni. A khat lamah CRPH tangkonate pen hoih tak ngaihsun loin mitsinsa in pawlkhat in sang thei kha ding hi. Tubang hun laitakin amaute man hi, khial hi, cihte koih phot ni. Hih bang mite mah zong CRPH tupna a lawhcingsak dingte vive ahi uh hi.

CRPH kalsuanzia leh makaih dan thukimpih, cih ciangin CRPH hoih nadingin CRPH tangkonate siksan kician nei-in a kawk siam zong om ding a, ahi zongin mitsi ziau in bangbang kisem ta leh hoih a sa ngiat zong a om ding mah ahi hi. Pilsinna a hoih het lo gam a khangkhia kha vive ihih manin a tung a i gen mi, pawl nihte lakah a nunung zaw pen mi a tamzaw tham hi laidep hi. Tua bang mipawlte in thu limtak ngaihsun lo, kan loin om lel mawk uh hi. Dah huai mahmah hi napi thuman i dinmun leh i phatan hi phot hi. CRPH in bangbang sem ta leh hoih ei, a cih den keei uh hangin Federal ngahtakpi ciangin federal thupomzia leh democracy kalsuanziate a sangzo takpi ding uh hiam, cih pen lunghihmawh huai hi. Sang zo lo kha mai takpi ding uh a, tua pen hong ukcip Galkap mangte hong nusiat guhnatna khat hi, a ci nuam ihi hi.

Lamkhat panin tua bang mite lungsim ah federal hong san theihna dingun 2008 Thukhunpi a kiphiatna hangin amaute noptuam nading federal thupha a omzia, 2008 Thukhunpi a siathuaizia cihte hong muh siam leh hong san siam nadingun hanciamin genpih kuppih kul hi. Tua hi kei leh CRPH in a gen peuhpeuh hoih sa khin napi federal bang a kalsuan taktak ciangin lungkim lo kik thei ding uh a, lamkal ah hong bah sak thei ding hi.

Hi bang federal thutheihna, democracy thupomziate mipi tel kim dingin kigenpih kikuppih ding, cih thu pen tu dinmun a aituam minam hamphatna a ngah Bama kici Kawlmipite tungah hi phadiak hi. Hih thului sungah thu nih gen ni. Khatna pen minam aituam hamphatna a ngah Bama Kawlmite thu hi a, nihna ah khuatang nuntakna hong tuamcip thumuhzia pawlkhat laih huai, cihte hi ding hi.

Kawlmite in minam aituam hamphatna ngah, cih pen bang ahi hiam?

Matthew J. Walton in ‘The Wages of Burman-ness’ kici laibu a gelhna sungah Kawlmite ngah aituam hamphatna hang a buainate teltakin na gelh hi. Ama genna a tomin genkik pak le hang, “1938 kum pan kipan zanggam khuapi a om mi a tamzaw Kawlmite leh Mualtung a teng minamte in a kibangin galkapte ukcipna leh bawlsiatna thuak uh hi. Tua bangin a thuakna uh kibang hi mah ta leh Mualmite thuakna pen Kawlmite thuakna tawh kiteh thei lo hi. Mualmite in tam thuak zaw tham hi. Bawlsiatna cih ciangin thahna, khuazangbup haltumna, kuli vanpuaksakna cih bang zawhthawh bawl gawpna cihte hi. Kumpi neihsa news lianpite, TV leh radio thukizaknate ah Kawlmi ahilo Mualmite minam hihna identity mahmah melh gawp meng gawpin beisiangsak ahih kei leh a tuampi in midangte muhzia a kilamdang dingin bawl uh hi. Sang inn pilsinnate ah tualsuak minam kampau tawh laisin ding khaktan uh hi. Kawlmi ahilote peuhmah gam mi taktak hi lo bang keekin bawlnate zong bawlsiatna mah ahi hi.”

Tua bangin Mualmite in sumzon paizonna, nuntak khuasakziate ah Kawlmite mah bangin liangko kikim hamphatna a ngah nadingun amau pianpih minam hihna identity te tampi nusiat loh phamawh ciang dinmun tung to hi. Amaute pianpih kampau zang loin Bama kici Kawlpau zat loh phamawh ta hi. Gentehna in laitan nei mi lawhcing khat hihna dingin Kawlpau leh Kawllai siam loh phamawh hi. Tua banah Kawl kumpi in Mualmite pianzia leh ngeinate pen kemcing loin amau ut bangin kaisuk kaito uh hi. Nah Wah Tah hun lai-in khualzinna lam masawn nading ci-in Palaung (Kayan) mite pen gamdang mite lunglut dingin zep beh gawpin lakkhia uh hi. Palaung minamate in a ngawng uhah taukual vial uh hi, cih danin midangte muh dingin kilangsak uh hi.

Zanggam khuapi a teng Kawlmite pianzia leh ngeinate zong sang inn leh thukizaknate panin tua bang mahin gamdang mite lunglut dingin bawlin kipuah veve hi, a ci nuam om ding hi. Himah hi. Ahi zongin Mualmite zah in Kawlmite pianzia leh ngeinate pen kiphuak tawm kizem tawm gawp sam lo hi. Mualmite thuak bawlsiatna, tuambawlna leh nenniamna pen Kawlmite thuakna sangin lian zaw tham hi. Kawlmite in hih bang thute a theihlohna uh pen Kawlmite aituam ngah minam hamphatna hipah hi.

Tulaitak Kawlmi pawlkhatte in bang hangin mualmi thautawite khuapi ah hong pai-in galkapte hong dopih lo uh ahi hiam, ci uh hi. Lamet luat manin heh zawzen ta uh hi. Tua bang a heh ngawhna leh kikona in a hoih lam sangin Kawlmite leh Mualmite kikal hong kigamlasak semsem thei ding hi. Tua hangin hih buaina pen vensak mengmeng kisam ahi hi. Kawlmite dinmun panin hih bang bawlsiatna leh aituam minam hamphatna om mawk mah veh e, ci-in telin hong san theih ciang bekin minam kikal kilemna taktak hong piang pan ding hi. Hih buaina pen kin takin a manlang thei penin vensak ding vai lianpi anei ihi hi.

Ukcip Galkapte do huan phot ni, thudangte nunun phot ni… cih bang tawh lem het lo hi. Ukcip galkapte i do kawm mahin Mualmite leh Kawlmi mipite sung a om hih aituam minam hamphatna leh kibawlsiatna kinenniamnate i vensak loh phamawh hi. Bang hang hiam cih ciangin hih buaina pen Galkap mangte in hong nusiat kumtampi sung khaici a tuhsa uh hi a, Kawlmi mualmi om loin mi khempeuh adingin guhnatna suak ahi hi. A zungpi panin lot khiat loh phamawh hi. Tua hi kei leh theih loh kalin galkapte a thapia niloh i suak toto lai ding hi.

Laih loh a phamawh khuatang kipawlnate sung a thuneihna (power relation) tuamtuamte:

A tung a gensa bangin Kawlmite leh a dang minamte thuakna a suksiatzia kibang kim lo, cih pen Kawlmi mipite in a san theih khit uh ciangin laih loh a phamawh thu pawlkhat om to leuleu hi. Galkapte bawlsiatna i theihsa ahih hangin amaute hong khaici tuhte uh mipi lak leh minamte lakah tampi om khinin po khin ahih lam phawk ding kisam hi. Hihte laih ding ahih lam kiphawk lo thei hi. Suahtakna leh daihna tawh khuatang nuntakzia a thak i neih theih ni ciangin federal democracy tawh kituak khangthak ngaihsutzia khaici hoihte vawh kul ding hi. Tua bangin gampi thak lam loh phamawh ta ahi hi.

Tu abangin laih loh aphamawh thuneihna leh kizopziate cih ciangin minam khat leh khat kikal, mipite sung khat leh khat kikal kizopna ah thuneihnate thu a gen nuam ihi hi. Tua thuneihnate bang ci bangin khat leh khat kimemat uh hiam ensuk dih ni.

Khuatang sungah ahuampi in mipite nuntak khuasakzia nam nih in kikhen thei hi. A neizawdeuhte leh a neilo mizawng leh mihau kikal hi. Ukna neite leh ukna a thuak mite ahi uh hi. Ukna neite in ukna a thuak mite sawt veipi a ukcip theih nadingun a lem bangbangin lam tuamtuam tawh semkhia uh hi. TV leh thukizaknate, sang innte zangin semkhia uh hi. Khat veivei tua ukna a nei mite ahih kei leh minamte gamtatzia dik a sa lo thumute leh a pau ngamte hong khang hi. Ukna nei mite gamtatzia leh a nasepnate uh pen ukna a khahsuah lohna ding uh hanciamna hi a, tua bang gamtatzia dik a salo a gen ngam mite leuleu ciangin gamtatzia leh khuatang nuntakzia a lam thak nuamte ahi uh hi.

Mitkha ah i bawl theih dingin gen leng. Gamkek Mangkangte hong tuncil lamin Mangkangte pen George kumpipa in hoih hi, Kawlmite tenna gam pen Mangkang khut nuai ah om ta ahih manin i angtang mahmah a, vang zong i nei mahmah hi, ci-in genin kipahpih hi. Tua thu pen TV leh thukizaknate akipan sang innte leh zum inn tuamtuamte ah gen ziahziah uh hi. Hih bangin ukna a nei Mangkangte lungdamna leh vang neihna pen ukna a thuak Kawlmite adingin kha vilvel ahi hi. Tua ahih manin Kawlmite sungah minam lungsim a nei tinten mi hong khangkhia pah hi. Kawlte pen minam lian, Mangkangte pen sal a hong man hong ukcipte hi, ci-in thu thangsakin lehdo ding kipan uh hi. Tu abangin hihtegel kikal a kikhung thuneihnate kizopzia power relation thu a gengen ihi hi.

Zanggam khuapi ateng Kawlmite in amau minam hihna bulphuhin sang inn laisinziate bawlin amau thumah sin dingin koih uh a, tua pen sangnaupangte in a sin uh ciangin ‘Kawlmite nasia lua,’ ci uh hi. Anawratha pen Kawlgam masa a phutpa, Bayinnaung pen Kawlgam nihna a phutpa, Alaung Phaya pen Kawlgam thumna a phutpa ci-in sinsak uh hi. Tua khit ciangin ukcip Mangkangte hun, tua hun a bei ciangin Kawlmite in a lehdo hun, cih bangin kisinsak hi. Hih bangin pilsinna sang innte ah Kawlmite thu bekbek kisin ahih manin Kawlmite nasia lua, adang minamte bel thu hi kei, cih dan khat suaksak uh hi. Mualmite tawh kisai a gen uh ciangin “Gambuppi kitapkhap lohna ding” cih bekbek hi denin Mualmite khimcip hencip uh hi. Tua bangin Mualmite pianzia leh ngeinate melh bawlin amanthan nadingin na semsem uh hi.

Zanggam Kawlmite tampi in hih bang thute pom mahmah uh a, ahi ding mah sa lel uh hi. Kilawm lo hi, dik lo hi, cih zong phawk kha nawn lo uh hi. Sang inn, thukizakna tuamtuam, sang inn laisimbute ah kumpi in tua bangin Kawlmite liat sem nading leh Mualmite maiman nading semkhia uh hi. Hong khangthak ding federal democracy gampi thak hunah hih bang kalsuanzia leh nasepnate laih loh phamawh ta ding hi.

A tung lamah gensa bangin CRPH ii political goal pen a taksuah theih nadingin ukcip galkap mangte in khaici a tuh uh leh hong nusiat uh buaina zungpite guhnatna pen a thak tawh laih a, federal tawh a kituak nuntak dan leh kalsuanzia a thak tawh gampi lam khop loh phamawh ahi hi.

……………………………………………………….

Photo : 1947 Kum Panglong Khuapi ah Chin State pan Panglong Thukimna suaikai a apai teng limlak. Zomite pen Myanmar gam a ohutkhiate ihi a, Myanmar gam ah Kawlmite tawh kibangin liangko kikimna leh hamphatna i ngah kim nai loh hangin innteek ihi hi.

(Hih thului pen YUOPS te in a gelhkhiat uh hi a, Tedim Post Tanute in Zomi mit tawh a kisim ciangin a telnop dingin YUOPS Facebook Page pan hamciamin hong lehkhiat uh ahi hi).

Reference: Althusser, Louis. Ideology and Ideological State Apparatus: The Reproduction of Capitalism. 1970.

Philp, Janette, and David Mercer. "Commodification of Buddhism in contemporary Burma." Annals of Tourism Research 26.1 (1999): 21-54.

Salem-Gervais, Nicolas, and Rosalie Metro. "A textbook case of nation-building: The evolution of history curricula in Myanmar." Journal of Burma Studies 16.1 (2012): 27-78.

Walton, Matthew J. "The “wages of Burman-ness:” Ethnicity and Burman privilege in contemporary Myanmar." Journal of Contemporary Asia 43.1 (2013): 1-27.

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